In the May 2007 issue of Anesthesia and Analgesia, a study examining the relationship between chronic pain and performance on neuropsychological measures of short-term memory and attention is presented. A team of researchers at the University of Alberta administered a series of computerized measures of working (short-term) memory and attention to a sample of chronic pain patients. Their results indicated that two-thirds of the chronic pain patients tested were found to be impaired on tests of working memory and attention. Additional factors such as age, education level, disturbed sleep, and pain relief were ruled out as possible confounding factors. Performance on the cognitive tests was not improved by short-term pain relief using analgesics. The researchers conclude that chronic pain can directly affect cognitive performance which can, in turn, affect quality of life and level of functioning.