A study published in the January 2009 issue of Comprehensive Psychiatry examines the influence of various forms of childhood abuse on basal cortisol levels in a sample of adults with Axis II personality disorders. Participants included 63 adults (n = 19 women) who provided basal plasma cortisol samples and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Statistical analysis that included all 5 subscales (ie, sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect) demonstrated that physical abuse was related to lower cortisol levels which was consistent with prior literature. In contrast, physical neglect was associated with higher cortisol after controlling for other forms of abuse. Results are consistent with the view that childhood trauma has long-lasting neurobiological effects and suggest that different forms of trauma may have distinct biological effects.